Swaging: A Deformation

In the simplest of terms, products are generally made by functionally assembling various parts. Product design and assembly/production technology enabling stable product quality at low cost (in other words, products that are easy to make) are key to this assembly process. Additionally, environmental considerations call for products that are free of disposal costs. In this post we will review an assembly component technology called, “swaging.”

What is swaging?

Part securing methods includes the following:

  • Screw fastening
  • Adhesives
  • Press-fitting
  • Welding
  • Swaging

Swaging is the deformation of fixing portions of workpieces in order to permanently fix parts to each other. There are 2 types of fixing that utilize swaging: fixing parts to each other and fixing parts to each other such that rotary motion is possible. The photos below are examples of swaging techniques.

Characteristics of Swaging


  • Assembly with strong fixing force can be achieved in a short processing time using jigs and automated equipment.
  • As a method, it is highly reliable and easy to automate.
  • The swaging process is greatly affected by the design quality at the design stage of the parts to be swaged.


  • Investment is required to install jigs and automated equipment

Types of Swaging


Riveting is a method for joining parts by drilling holes in two sheet-shaped parts, inserting rivets thinner than the hole diameters, and crushing the rivet tips.

Description: An SUS head-mount rivet is inserted into an aluminum arm hole formed in a concave/convex shape and is quickly swaged by passing a steel ball through the rivet hole.


This is a swaging method that facilitates the connecting feature by crimp crushing outer circumference portions of round rods and pipes. It is typically used for simple rotating stopper pins and alike.

Nikkan Kogyo Shinbum Ltd.

Tab Connection

Tab connection is used for connecting bent plates. A tab formed on one part is inserted into a slotted hole on another part, and the plates are connected together by the tab being folded, twisted, or crushed.

Nikkan Kogyo Shinbum Ltd.

Laminated Plate Connecting

This is a connection method where two thin plates or tubular shapes are connected by laminating and bending the edges. A convex shaped swaging head is pressed on and the parts to be connected are moved (rotated or slid) to facilitate the swaging.

Nikkan Kogyo Shinbum Ltd.

Design Points and Considerations for a Swaging Machine

  • Countermeasures on swaging head wear and deformation
  • Workability during swaging head replacement
  • Reliability of the positioning of swaged parts
  • Ample rigidity of load support structure during swaging operation
  • Operational safety

Typical Design of a Swaging Machine

The below figure shows a typical structure of a swaging device and associated various units composing the system. Various MISUMI Components frequently used for such applications are also introduced.

Nikkan Kogyo Shinbum Ltd.

Swaging dates as far back to 19th century when blacksmiths utilized the process to create intricate designs on metals that a hammer alone could not do. Presently, it is used for much more than that. Today’s swaging technology allows for more components to be connected together in a more accurate way.

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